The residential market vertical spans multiple types of dwelling, categorized by varying footprints and ownership structures (Single family, multi-family, detached, condominium, apartments, etc…). Although the level of IoT penetration and complexity varies by the type of dwelling, the application space targets the same goals. Efficiency and convenience IoT functionality is implemented by combinations of sensing, monitoring, automation (control) and notification.
The application covers systems that include lighting, security, HVAC, power delivery, entertainment and is increasingly extending into appliances and fixtures of all types.
The residential market includes various technologies including wired and wireless communication and control. Wireless technologies tend to dominate, and include standard and proprietary protocols including, but not limited to:
- Personal Area networks: point to point communication (e.g. IEEE 802.15.1 Bluetooth, Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE))
A computer network used for data transmission amongst devices such as computers, telephones, tablets and personal digital assistants.
- Mesh networks, generally IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Personal Area Networks implementations and similes including Zigbee and Zwave
A mesh network is a network topology in which each node relays data for the network.
- Local Area Networks (Point to multi-point): Ethernet (WiFi), Enocean
A computer network that interconnects computers within a limited area such as a residence, school, laboratory, university campus or office building and has its network equipment and interconnects locally managed
- Wide Area networks including cellular
A telecommunications network or computer network that extends over a large geographical distance
|Number of Devices||Low||Medium||High|
|Quality of Service (QOS)||Medium|
|Topology||Star, Point-to-point (P2P), LAN|
|Power||Line Power, Battery, Direct Current, Power over Ethernet|
The residential market is generally dominated by consumer and standard communication protocols that are characterized by low cost and availability:
- Ethernet (LAN, WiFi) 802.11 WLAN
- Personal and Small area Networks
- Bluetooth, BLE (IEEE 802.15.1)
A wireless personal area network technology designed and marketed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group intended to provide considerably reduced power consumption while maintaining a similar communication range as Bluetooth.
- Mesh 802.15.4
A technical standard which defines the operation of low-rate wireless personal area networks.
An IEEE 802.15.4-based specification for a suite of high-level communication protocols used to create personal area networks with small, low-power digital radios.
A wireless communications protocol used primarily for home automation
- Bluetooth, BLE (IEEE 802.15.1)
- Cellular and Broadband
- Mobile broadband
The marketing term for wireless Internet access through a portable modem, mobile phone, USB wireless modem, tablet or other mobile devices
3G short for third generation, is the third generation of wireless mobile telecommunications technology
4G short for fourth generation, is the fourth generation of wireless mobile telecommunications technology.
5G short for fifth generation represents the proposed next generation of wireless mobile telecommunications technology
- Long Term Evolution (LTE)
A standard for high-speed wireless communication for mobile phones and data terminals, based on the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)/Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) /High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) technologies.
- Mobile broadband
- Proprietary Wireless Networks
Another relevant Residential question relates to the User Interface/Home Automation Systems that control IoT devices. There are several vendor specific/proprietary stand-alone systems, but the major drivers currently are the integrated systems that manage multiple devices across protocols and systems. Some of the key systems are
- Amazon Echo (Alexa)
A smart speaker developed by Amazon which connects to the voice-controlled intelligent personal assistant service Alexa.
- Apple HomeKit
A framework for communicating with and controlling connected accessories in a user’s home
- Google: Home
A complex of three devices (a speaker, the Al personal assistant, and the smart controller), all in one.
A manufacturer of smart home safety products (i.e. thermostats, smoke alarms)
- Samsung SmartThings
An open platform for smart homes
Appliance Controls: Individual appliances are increasingly connected and provide notification and control options
- Kitchen appliances:
- Refrigerator: Sensing of temperature and contents. Notification of shopping list items. Customized temperature profile by content/location
- Oven/Stove/Grill: Sensing feedback for appliance and food status. Cook to exact desired temperature
- Washer/Dryer: Intelligent wash and dry cycles and notification. Integrated into smart grid to optimize wash/dry times for lowest energy costs
- Windows and Window Treatment: respond to changing lighting conditions and user preference
- Landscape irrigation and controls
- Automated cleaning appliances
- Audio streaming
- Video streaming
- Integrated space controls
- Environmental monitoring and conditioning
- Furnace controls
- Air-conditioning controls
- Indoor lighting
- Outdoor & landscape lighting
- Stand-alone fixtures
- Water detection
- Fuel level monitoring
- Load controls
- Outlet controls
- Integration of renewable and storage
- Automotive Charging
- Utility and smart meters
Security and Access Controls
- Door locks
- Security cameras
- Security sensors
- Garage door opener
- Single family homes
- Multi family dwellings
- Apartment and high rise buildings
- IEEE 802.3 Ethernet
A collection of IEEE standards defining the physical layer and data link layer’s media access control (MAC) of wired Ethernet.
- IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks
A set of media access control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) specifications for implementing wireless local area network (WLAN) computer communication in the 900 MHz and 2.4, 3.6, 5, and 60 GHz frequency bands.
- IEEE 802.15.1 Wireless Personal Area Networks (Bluetooth™)
Bluetooth is an industry specification for short-range radio frequency (RF)-based connectivity for portable personal devices
- IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Personal Area Networks
A technical standard which defines the operation of low-rate wireless personal area networks. It serves as the basis for the Zigbee and Thread specifications